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Российский иммунологический журнал

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КОИНГИБИРУЮЩИЕ МОЛЕКУЛЫ В НОРМЕ И ПРИ ПАТОЛОГИИ. КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ТОЧКИ (CHECKPOINT) ИММУНОРЕГУЛЯЦИИ. Часть 1. Роль коингибирующих молекул в нормальном иммунном ответе, при аллергии и аутоиммунных заболеваниях

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Аннотация

Дифференцировка и протективные свойства антиген-специфических Т-клеток регулируются как позитивными, так и негативными сигналами. Молекулы семейства B 7/CD 28 очень важны для регуляции Т-клеточной активации и периферической толерантности. Особенно PD-1, CTLA-4 и другие ко-ингибирующие молекулы играют активную роль в ограничении чрезмерной иммунной активации, что чрезвычайно важно для успешного очищения от патогена без нанесения ущерба организму хозяина. Эти ко-ингибирующие молекулы (иммунологические контрольные точки) необходимы для дифференцировки индуцированных Treg и их функционирования. С другой стороны, гиперэкспрессия коингибирующих молекул может приводить к формированию состояния «утомления» – exhaustion Т-клеток – адаптивного состояния Т-клеток, которое возникает при системной персистенции антигена. Такие «утомленные» Т-клетки описывают как Т-эффекторы с резко сниженной продукцией цитокинов и эффекторной функцией. В данном обзоре мы рассматриваем критически важную роль ко-ингибирующих молекул, которую они играют в иммунопатогенезе четырех иммунологических синдромов: аллергии, аутоиммунных заболеваний, хронических инфекций и рака. Обратимость состояния exhaustion Т-клеток с помощью блокады ко-ингибирующих путей открывает важную область терапевтического использования таких блокаторов в онкологии и при хронических вирусных инфекциях.

Об авторе

А. П. Топтыгина
ФБУН «Московский научно-исследовательский институт эпидемиологии и микробиологии им. Г. Н. Габричевского» Роспотребнадзора; ФГБО УВПО «Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова»
Россия

Топтыгина Анна Павловна, д. м. н., ведущий научный сотрудник лаборатории цитокинов МНИИЭМ им. Г. Н. Габричевского, профессор кафедры иммунологии Биологического факультета МГУ им. М. В. Ломоносова

125212, Москва, ул. Адмирала Макарова 10



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Для цитирования:


Топтыгина А.П. КОИНГИБИРУЮЩИЕ МОЛЕКУЛЫ В НОРМЕ И ПРИ ПАТОЛОГИИ. КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ТОЧКИ (CHECKPOINT) ИММУНОРЕГУЛЯЦИИ. Часть 1. Роль коингибирующих молекул в нормальном иммунном ответе, при аллергии и аутоиммунных заболеваниях. Российский иммунологический журнал. 2017;20(4):3-14.

For citation:


Toptygina A.P. CO-INHIBITORY MOLECULES IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. IMMONOLOGICAL CHECKPOINTS Part 1. Role of co-inhibitory molecules in normal immune response and in allergy and autoimmune diseases. Russian Journal of Immunology. 2017;20(4):3-14. (In Russ.)

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